Sustainable manufacturing is becoming a popular concept. However, the definition is not clear, and technical approaches are not specified in conventional studies. This study proposes a conceptual framework for understanding sustainable manufacturing from the viewpoint of risks in manufacturing enterprises and supply chains. Two aspects of sustainable manufacturing are defined: manufacturing for a sustainable society and sustainability of the manufacturing sector. A technical approach is relevant to visualization techniques in systems engineering. The study categorizes risk and sustainability factors of manufacturing enterprises into four sections: internal, supply chain, manufacturing, and global society. Inter-sectional analysis is important for resolving environmental issues. In addition, this study categorizes methods for risk management corresponding to different time scales and frequencies.