A dynamical mechanism for secondary eyewall formation in tropical cyclones

研究成果: Article

抄録

This study proposes that secondary eyewall formation (SEF) of tropical cyclones (TCs) can be attributed to an instability of flow in the free atmosphere coupled with Ekman pumping. Unstable solutions of a 1.5-layer shallow-water system are obtained under fast-wind speed conditions in the free atmosphere. The instability condition derived in the linear model indicates the importance of the ratio of angular velocity to vorticity, and the condition is more likely to be satisfied when the ratio is large and its radial gradient is positive. Thus, fast angular velocity, low absolute vertical vorticity, small negative radial gradient of angular velocity, and large negative gradient of vertical vorticity are favorable. Eigenvalue analyses are performed over a wide range of parameters using a vorticity profile with an infinitesimal secondary maximum. The growth rate increases with vorticity outside the radius of maximum wind (RMW), the radius of the secondary vorticity maximum, its magnitude, and the Rossby number defined by maximum tangential velocity, the RMW, and the Coriolis parameter. Furthermore, the growth rate is positive only between 2 and 7 times the RMW, and it is negative close to or far outside the RMW. These features are consistent with previous studies on SEF. A dimensionless quantity γ obtained from the unstable condition in the linear theory is applied to SEF events simulated by two different full-physics numerical models;γ increases several hours before a secondary peak of tangential velocity forms, suggesting that the initial process of SEF can be attributed to the proposed mechanism.

元の言語English
ページ(範囲)3965-3986
ページ数22
ジャーナルJournal of the Atmospheric Sciences
75
発行部数11
DOI
出版物ステータスPublished - 2018 11 1

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tropical cyclone
vorticity
Ekman pumping
Rossby number
atmosphere
eigenvalue
shallow water
physics
wind velocity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atmospheric Science

これを引用

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title = "A dynamical mechanism for secondary eyewall formation in tropical cyclones",
abstract = "This study proposes that secondary eyewall formation (SEF) of tropical cyclones (TCs) can be attributed to an instability of flow in the free atmosphere coupled with Ekman pumping. Unstable solutions of a 1.5-layer shallow-water system are obtained under fast-wind speed conditions in the free atmosphere. The instability condition derived in the linear model indicates the importance of the ratio of angular velocity to vorticity, and the condition is more likely to be satisfied when the ratio is large and its radial gradient is positive. Thus, fast angular velocity, low absolute vertical vorticity, small negative radial gradient of angular velocity, and large negative gradient of vertical vorticity are favorable. Eigenvalue analyses are performed over a wide range of parameters using a vorticity profile with an infinitesimal secondary maximum. The growth rate increases with vorticity outside the radius of maximum wind (RMW), the radius of the secondary vorticity maximum, its magnitude, and the Rossby number defined by maximum tangential velocity, the RMW, and the Coriolis parameter. Furthermore, the growth rate is positive only between 2 and 7 times the RMW, and it is negative close to or far outside the RMW. These features are consistent with previous studies on SEF. A dimensionless quantity γ obtained from the unstable condition in the linear theory is applied to SEF events simulated by two different full-physics numerical models;γ increases several hours before a secondary peak of tangential velocity forms, suggesting that the initial process of SEF can be attributed to the proposed mechanism.",
keywords = "Ekman pumping, Ekman pumping/transport, Hurricanes, Hurricanes/typhoons, Hurricanes/typhoons, Tropical cyclones",
author = "Yoshiaki Miyamoto and Nolan, {David S.} and Norihiko Sugimoto",
year = "2018",
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doi = "10.1175/JAS-D-18-0042.1",
language = "English",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - A dynamical mechanism for secondary eyewall formation in tropical cyclones

AU - Miyamoto, Yoshiaki

AU - Nolan, David S.

AU - Sugimoto, Norihiko

PY - 2018/11/1

Y1 - 2018/11/1

N2 - This study proposes that secondary eyewall formation (SEF) of tropical cyclones (TCs) can be attributed to an instability of flow in the free atmosphere coupled with Ekman pumping. Unstable solutions of a 1.5-layer shallow-water system are obtained under fast-wind speed conditions in the free atmosphere. The instability condition derived in the linear model indicates the importance of the ratio of angular velocity to vorticity, and the condition is more likely to be satisfied when the ratio is large and its radial gradient is positive. Thus, fast angular velocity, low absolute vertical vorticity, small negative radial gradient of angular velocity, and large negative gradient of vertical vorticity are favorable. Eigenvalue analyses are performed over a wide range of parameters using a vorticity profile with an infinitesimal secondary maximum. The growth rate increases with vorticity outside the radius of maximum wind (RMW), the radius of the secondary vorticity maximum, its magnitude, and the Rossby number defined by maximum tangential velocity, the RMW, and the Coriolis parameter. Furthermore, the growth rate is positive only between 2 and 7 times the RMW, and it is negative close to or far outside the RMW. These features are consistent with previous studies on SEF. A dimensionless quantity γ obtained from the unstable condition in the linear theory is applied to SEF events simulated by two different full-physics numerical models;γ increases several hours before a secondary peak of tangential velocity forms, suggesting that the initial process of SEF can be attributed to the proposed mechanism.

AB - This study proposes that secondary eyewall formation (SEF) of tropical cyclones (TCs) can be attributed to an instability of flow in the free atmosphere coupled with Ekman pumping. Unstable solutions of a 1.5-layer shallow-water system are obtained under fast-wind speed conditions in the free atmosphere. The instability condition derived in the linear model indicates the importance of the ratio of angular velocity to vorticity, and the condition is more likely to be satisfied when the ratio is large and its radial gradient is positive. Thus, fast angular velocity, low absolute vertical vorticity, small negative radial gradient of angular velocity, and large negative gradient of vertical vorticity are favorable. Eigenvalue analyses are performed over a wide range of parameters using a vorticity profile with an infinitesimal secondary maximum. The growth rate increases with vorticity outside the radius of maximum wind (RMW), the radius of the secondary vorticity maximum, its magnitude, and the Rossby number defined by maximum tangential velocity, the RMW, and the Coriolis parameter. Furthermore, the growth rate is positive only between 2 and 7 times the RMW, and it is negative close to or far outside the RMW. These features are consistent with previous studies on SEF. A dimensionless quantity γ obtained from the unstable condition in the linear theory is applied to SEF events simulated by two different full-physics numerical models;γ increases several hours before a secondary peak of tangential velocity forms, suggesting that the initial process of SEF can be attributed to the proposed mechanism.

KW - Ekman pumping

KW - Ekman pumping/transport

KW - Hurricanes

KW - Hurricanes/typhoons

KW - Hurricanes/typhoons

KW - Tropical cyclones

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U2 - 10.1175/JAS-D-18-0042.1

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JO - Journals of the Atmospheric Sciences

JF - Journals of the Atmospheric Sciences

SN - 0022-4928

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