This paper reports the findings for a humanoid robot that expresses its listening attitude and understanding to humans by effectively using its body properties in a route guidance situation. A human teaches a route to the robot, and the developed robot behaves similar to a human listener by utilizing both temporal and spatial cooperative behaviors to demonstrate that it is indeed listening to its human counterpart. The robot's software consists of many communicative units and rules for selecting appropriate communicative units. A communicative unit realizes a particular cooperative behavior such as eye-contact and nodding, found through previous research in HRI. The rules for selecting communicative units were retrieved through our preliminary experiments with a WOZ method. An experiment was conducted to verify the effectiveness of the robot, with the results revealing that a robot displaying cooperative behavior received the highest subjective evaluation, which is rather similar to a human listener. A detailed analysis showed that this evaluation was mainly due to body movements as well as utterances. On the other hand, subjects' utterance to the robot was encouraged by the robot's utterances but not by its body movements.
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