Background Recently, corrective fusion surgery for patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD) has become common in Japan. This study aimed to clarify the status of surgeries for ASD in Japan, focusing on perioperative complications. A nationwide multicenter survey gathering information on surgically treated ASD patients was conducted by the committee for Adult Spinal Deformity of the Japanese Scoliosis Society. Methods This study was a review of retrospectively collected data from 18 spine scoliosis centers belonging to the Japanese Scoliosis Society. Patients who underwent corrective fusion surgery for ASD between 2011 and 2013 were included. Demographics, comorbidities, surgical data, and complications were investigated. Results A total of 1192 patients (mean age, 57.7 years) were included in this study. Of these, 611 patients were aged less than 65 years and 581 patients were aged 65 years or greater. The age distribution had two peaks, in the third and eighth decades. Deformities caused by degeneration represented 67% of the pathology in patients aged over 65 years; however, non-degenerative disease such as adult idiopathic scoliosis and syndromic or congenital deformity represented over 60% of pathology in patients aged less than 65 years. The iatrogenic deformity and reoperation rates were both less than 3%. The mean operation time and estimated blood loss were 370 min and 1642 ml, respectively. Major perioperative complications occurred in 160 patients (14.5%). The incidence of complications was significantly higher in patients aged over 65 years, including neurological deficits, hemorrhagic shock, hematoma, heart failure, and surgical site infection (p < 0.05). Conclusions Older (aged over 65 years) ASD patients showed greater rates of deformity due to the occurrence of degeneration and vertebral fractures, as well as a higher incidence of peri-and postoperative complications. Efforts to reduce perioperative complications are therefore imperative, especially for elderly ASD patients in our aging society.
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