Background: Ductal carcinoma of the prostate is a histological subtype with a higher mortality than acinar adenocarcinoma. The number of cases is small and there are no treatment guidelines. We believe that this is the first report of ductal carcinoma of the prostate with an adenomatosis polyposis coli (APC) gene mutation in Japan. Case presentation: An 85-year-old man presented with gross hematuria, and a papillary tumor in the prostatic urethra that was diagnosed as ductal carcinoma of the prostate following transurethral resection. Genetic analysis found an APC mutation with loss of heterozygosity. Immunostaining revealed focal nuclear translocation of β-catenin. APC mutations associated with loss of β-catenin degradation in the Wnt signaling pathway and result in over accumulation of β-catenin are thought to increase mortality. In this patient, β-catenin migrated into tumor cell nuclei. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of ductal carcinoma of the prostate with an APC mutation in Japan. The development of a therapeutic Wnt inhibitor is discussed.
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