The increasing number of patients with osteoporosis and sarcopenia is a global concern among countries with progressively aging societies. The high medical costs of treating those patients suggest that prevention rather than treatment is preferable. We enrolled 729 subjects who attended both the second and third surveys of the Research on Osteoarthritis/Osteoporosis Against Disability (ROAD) study. Blood samples were collected from subjects at the second survey, and then a comprehensive metabolomic analysis was performed. It was found that 35 had newly developed osteoporosis at the third survey performed four years later, and 39 were newly diagnosed with sarcopenia at the third survey. In the second survey, we found that serum Gly levels were significantly higher even after adjustment for age, sex, and BMI in subjects with newly developed osteoporosis relative to those who remained osteoporosis-negative during the four-year follow-up. We also show that serum taurine levels were significantly lower at the second survey, even after adjustment for age, sex, and BMI in subjects with newly developed sarcopenia during the four-year follow-up compared with those not diagnosed with sarcopenia at the second or third surveys. Though our sample size and odds ratios were small, increased Gly and decreased taurine levels were found to be predictive of new development of osteoporosis and sarcopenia, respectively, within four years.
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