The pygidicranid earwigs (Dermaptera) of Penang Island, Peninsular Malaysia were re-examined based on material collected in extensive field surveys in 2012–2013 and 2015. Echinosoma roseiventre Kamimura & Nishikawa, sp. n. is described and illustrated, and Cranopygia pallidipennis (de Haan, 1842) is reported from the island for the first time. The taxonomic and nomenclatural problems of the genus Cranopygia sensu Hincks (1959) [A Systematic Monograph of the Dermaptera of the World. Part II. Pygidicranidae excluding Diplatyinae. British Museum (Natural History)] are also discussed. For the members of the subfamily Pygidicraninae from Indo-Austral and Oriental regions, the system, definitions of genera, and key of Hincks (1959) are followed. The genus Mucrocranopygia Steinmann, 1986 is synonymized with Cranopygia Burr, 1908. A key to the males of small Echinosoma from the Oriental region is provided.
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