High-grade gliomas (HGGs) carry a dismal prognosis despite current treatments. We previously confirmed the safety and immunogenicity of a vaccine treatment targeting tumor angiogenesis with synthetic peptides, for vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) epitopes in recurrent HGG patients. In this study, we evaluated a novel vaccine therapy targeting not only tumor vasculature but also tumor cells, using multiple glioma oncoantigen (GOA)/glioma angiogenesis-associated antigen (GAAA) peptides in HLA-A2402+ recurrent/progressive HGG patients. The vaccine included peptide epitopes from four GOAs (LY6K, DEPDC1, KIF20A, and FOXM1) and two GAAAs (VEGFR1 and VEGFR2). Ten patients received subcutaneous vaccinations. The primary endpoint was the safety of the treatment. T-lymphocyte responses against GOA/GAAA epitopes and treatment response were evaluated secondarily. The treatment was well tolerated without any severe systemic adverse events. The vaccinations induced immunoreactivity to at least three vaccine-targeted GOA/GAAA in all six evaluable patients. The median overall survival time in all patients was 9.2 months. Five achieved progression-free status lasting at least six months. Two recurrent glioblastoma patients demonstrated stable disease. One patient with anaplastic oligoastrocytoma achieved complete response nine months after the vaccination. Taken together, this regimen was well tolerated and induced robust GOA/GAAA-specific T-lymphocyte responses in recurrent/progressive HGG patients.
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