(Purpose): To survey the present condition of administration method of the antimicrobial prophylactic (AMP) agents for the perioperative infection in Japan on revising "The Japanese guidelines for prevention of perioperative infections in urologic field (2006)". (Patients and methods): With the approval of the Japanese Urological Association (JUA) in 2011, all of the principal urological training institutions certified by JUA (n = 836) were encouraged to participate to survey their adherence to the JUA guidelines (published in 2006) for AMP to prevent perioperative infection in urological field, and 446 (53.3%) institutions responded to the questionnaire. (Results): The rates of following the JUA guidelines of, "completely", "mainly", "not too much", and "not at all" were 6.5%, 69.7%, 22.0% and 1.6%, respectively. The guidelines were followed for open clean operations in 48.5%, open clean-contaminated operations in 66.4%, open contaminated operations in 61.8%, laparoscopic clean operations in 54.1%, laparoscopic clean-contaminated operations in 61.2%, transurethral resection of bladder tumor in 71.5%, transurethral resection of prostate in 68.9%, ureteroscopy and transurethral ureterolithotomy in 68.2%, prostate biopsy in 43.2%, and cystoscopy were in 42.2%, respectively. However, in terms of duration of AMP administration, the longer duration than those recommended by the guidelines were observed for clean surgery, transurethral resection of bladder tumor, ureteroscopy and transurethral ureterolithotomy, prostate biopsy, and cystoscopy. (Conclusions): In terms of kinds of AMP, the guidelines were almostly followed in all operative procedures. However, the duration of AMP administration were longer than those recommended by the guidelines. On revision of "Japanese guidelines for prevention of perioperative infections in urologie field (2006)", these data would be taken into consideration to avoid dissociation between the guidelines and the practical side in the urologists.
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