Background & aims: Osteosarcopenic obesity (OSO) encompassing obesity, sarcopenia and osteopenia, is due to redistribution or infiltration of fat into muscle and bone. This cross-sectional study evaluated the association between OSO and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods: Obesity, sarcopenia and osteopenia was defined using the percentage of body fat mass, reduced muscle mass, and the percentage of young adult mean < 80%, measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, respectively. Non-obese and obese NAFLD was diagnosed by ultrasound and body mass index cut-off point (25 kg/m2). A total of 619 subjects ≥ 50 years who completed health checkups were divided into obesity group including OSO and sarcopenic obesity (SO) alone phenotype, and non-obesity group that did not belong to any phenotype, including standard (St). Results: Overall osteopenia and OSO were detected in only 10% and 1% in males, compared with 45% and 9% in females, respectively. Multivariate analysis for females demonstrated a significant association of OSO with non-obese NAFLD (odds ratio = 3.737, 95% confidence interval = 1.365–10.233, P = 0.010), while the association between SO alone and non-obese NAFLD was equivocal. The OSO phenotype had a significantly higher proportion of slower walking speed and weaker grip strength, compared to the St phenotype. The proportion of OSO increased with age in contrast to constant prevalence of non-obese NAFLD. Conclusion: Non-obese NAFLD had a significant association with OSO in females, independent of plausible confounders. These results suggest that non-obese NAFLD might be an independent risk factor for OSO.
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