Detailed two- and three-dimensional finite element analyses are performed to develop an engineering method to estimate elastic-plastic J for cracked structures under combined primary and secondary stresses, based on the V-factor. Extensive analyses with a wide range of geometry and load combination are considered. The results suggest important factors affecting the value of the V-factor. The most important one is the load magnitude, parameterized by the proximity of plastic yielding. The second one is the relative magnitude of the secondary stress to the primary stress. Although the effect of material, in particular materials with Lüders strain seems to be present, such an effect could be neglected, compared to those of the above two parameters. Based on the present results, an engineering method to estimate J for combined primary and secondary stress can be proposed using bilinear equations in terms of the above two parameters.
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