The two cardiac progenitor cell lineages, cardiac neural crest cells (cNCCs) and the second heart field (SHF), play key roles in the development of the cardiac outflow tract (OFT). Both cardiac progenitor cells interact with each other and contribute to OFT formation cooperatively. The neurovascular guiding molecule, semaphorin 3c (Sema3c), is thought to serve as a key attractant for the migration of cNCCs. A previous study reported that Tbx1 null mice showed a significant reduction in Sema3c expression in the OFT region . However, the regulatory effect of Tbx1 on Sema3c was unclear. Here, we show that Sema3c plays key roles in cNCCs-SHF interactions through the regulation by Tbx1 and other molecules during OFT development .
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