LiDAR is a distance sensor that plays a key role in the realization of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS). In this paper, we present a tutorial and review of automotive direct time of flight (dToF) LiDAR from the aspect of circuit systems. We discuss the breakthrough in ADAS LiDARs through comparison with the first-generation LiDAR systems, which were conventionally high-cost and had an immature performance. We define current high-performance and low-cost LiDARs as nextgeneration LiDAR systems, which have significantly improved the cost and performance by integrating the photodetector, the readout circuit, and the signal processing unit into a single SoC. This paper targets reader who is new to ADAS LiDARs and will cover the basic principles of LiDAR, also comparing with range methods other than dToF. In addition, we discuss the development of this area through the latest research examples such as the 2-chip approach, 2D SPAD array, and 3D integrated LiDARs.
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