The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in school closures worldwide, including in Japan, where remote education at schools is underdeveloped. Using a unique panel dataset collected in May and December 2020, we examine the determinants of access to online education at and outside schools and parents’ preference towards at-school online education. We observe that children from more privileged family backgrounds received more at-school as well as outside-school online education. We also find that household income and parent's educational level are associated with higher demand for at-school online education, while mothers working full-time and fathers in non-regular contracts decreased this demand temporarily.
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