We present a protocol for activating protein synthesis in liposomes encapsulating a diluted E. coli cell extract-based TX-TL (transcription-translation) system by hypertonic concentration. Protein expression is turned on in the liposome-encapsulated TX-TL system by simple treatment with a concentrated external solution. The expression of sfGFP is demonstrated here, but it can be applied to other proteins. This protocol can be applied to the development of artificial cells utilizing the switch-on mechanism to activate protein expression, responding to the outer environment. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Akui et al. (2021).
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