Although spatiotemporal changes of oxygen in a microenvironment are known to affect the cellular dynamics of various eukaryotes, the details are not fully understood. Here, we describe the aerotaxis and aerokinesis of Dictyostelium discoideum (Dd), which has long been employed as a model organism for eukaryotic cells. We developed a microfluidic device capable of time-lapse observation of cultured cells while controlling oxygen concentrations in microchannels. Migratory behaviors of Dd were observed and quantitatively evaluated under an oxygen concentration gradient from 0% to 21% O 2 , as well as in various uniform oxygen conditions. In a hypoxic region within the oxygen concentration gradient, Dd migrated toward regions of higher oxygen concentration at increased velocity, which was independent of cell density. Observed under uniform oxygen concentrations of 1%, 2%, 3%, and 21%, the migration velocity of Dd increased significantly in hypoxic environments of 2% O 2 or less. Thus, Dd shows aerotaxis, directed by the oxygen concentration gradient, and simultaneously shows aerokinesis, changing the migration velocity according to the oxygen concentration itself.