Allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (allo-HCT) from matched sibling donor (MSD) is recommended for younger patients with intermediate cytogenetic risk AML in first CR (CR1), whereas the role of alternative donor transplants in these patients is unknown. We retrospectively analyzed 605 patients with intermediate-risk AML, who received myeloablative allo-HCT in CR1. The 4-year OS for MSD (n=290) and matched unrelated donor (MUD; n=141) was 65% and 68% (P=0.50), respectively. In multivariate analysis, MUD had a similar risk of overall mortality as MSD (hazard ratio=0.90; 95% confidence interval, 0.62-1.30; P=0.58), whereas older age, female donor/male recipient (FDMR) combination, and requiring more than one course of induction chemotherapy to achieve CR1 were poor prognostic factors for OS. Thus, OS after MUD HCT with sex combinations other than FDMR was significantly higher than that after MSD HCT from female donors to male recipients (4-year OS 72% versus 55%, P=0.04). These results suggest that HCT, not only from MSD, but also from MUD, should be considered in younger patients with intermediate-risk AML in CR1, and that the donor-recipient sex combination is more important than the donor type in donor selection.
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