Objective Little information is available about the outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for patients with secondary myelofibrosis from essential thrombocythemia (ET) and polycythemia vera (PV). A nationwide retrospective study of the outcome of HSCT for post-ET and post-PV myelofibrosis was conducted in Japan. Patients and Methods Clinical data for patients with post-ET (n=29) and post-PV (n=9) myelofibrosis who had received first allogeneic HSCT were extracted from the Transplant Registry Unified Management Program, which is a registry of the outcomes of HSCT in Japan. Results Five patients died without neutrophil recovery within 60 days after transplantation. The incidence of neutrophil recovery was significantly lower in umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation than in related donor transplantation (40% vs. 92%, p=0.010). The 1-year non-relapse mortality for post-ET and post-PV myelofibrosis was 35% and 27%, respectively (p=0.972). No patient or transplantation characteristics were associated with non-relapse mortality. The 4-year overall survival for post-ET and post-PV myelofibrosis was 46% and 65%, respectively (p=0.362). A univariate analysis identified UCB transplantation (vs. related donor, p=0.017) and !10 times red blood cell transfusions before transplantation (vs. <10 times, p=0.037) as predictive of a lower overall survival. Conclusion Allogeneic HSCT provides a long-term survival for at least some patients with post-ET and post-PV myelofibrosis. Further studies with more patients are required to determine the best alternative donor.
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