Background: In planning gender-reassignment surgery for biological women and treating men with gynecomastia, surgeons must have a thorough understanding of anatomically correct nipple positions and appropriate areola sizes in men. Objectives: The authors sought to determine whether body height or body mass index (BMI) affects nipple position or areola size in men. Methods: Anatomic measurements of the nipples and areolae of 50 Japanese men were obtained. A relative coordinate system was defined, where the medial-lateral and superior-inferior positions of the nipple were quantitatively indicated by distance ratios between anatomic landmarks. Nipple positions were evaluated for each patient by referring to this coordinate system, and the positions were compared between groups categorized by body height or BMI. Results: Nipple position was not significantly affected by body height. However, the nipple tended to be located more laterally in participants with higher BMI. The vertical nipple position differed between standing and supine positions. Tall men had larger areolae than short men; however, areola size did not differ with respect to BMI. Conclusions: Nipple position and areola size vary by body shape. Consideration of the differences is recommended when performing procedures such as female-to-male gender-reassignment surgery or correction of gynecomastia.
ASJC Scopus subject areas