An anatomic study of nipple position and areola size in asian men

Shogo Kasai, Yusuke Shimizu, Tomohisa Nagasao, Fumio Ohnishi, Toshiharu Minabe, Akira Momosawa, Kazuo Kishi

研究成果: Article

11 引用 (Scopus)

抜粋

Background: In planning gender-reassignment surgery for biological women and treating men with gynecomastia, surgeons must have a thorough understanding of anatomically correct nipple positions and appropriate areola sizes in men. Objectives: The authors sought to determine whether body height or body mass index (BMI) affects nipple position or areola size in men. Methods: Anatomic measurements of the nipples and areolae of 50 Japanese men were obtained. A relative coordinate system was defined, where the medial-lateral and superior-inferior positions of the nipple were quantitatively indicated by distance ratios between anatomic landmarks. Nipple positions were evaluated for each patient by referring to this coordinate system, and the positions were compared between groups categorized by body height or BMI. Results: Nipple position was not significantly affected by body height. However, the nipple tended to be located more laterally in participants with higher BMI. The vertical nipple position differed between standing and supine positions. Tall men had larger areolae than short men; however, areola size did not differ with respect to BMI. Conclusions: Nipple position and areola size vary by body shape. Consideration of the differences is recommended when performing procedures such as female-to-male gender-reassignment surgery or correction of gynecomastia.

元の言語English
ページ(範囲)NP20-NP27
ジャーナルAesthetic Surgery Journal
35
発行部数2
DOI
出版物ステータスPublished - 2015

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery

フィンガープリント An anatomic study of nipple position and areola size in asian men' の研究トピックを掘り下げます。これらはともに一意のフィンガープリントを構成します。

  • これを引用

    Kasai, S., Shimizu, Y., Nagasao, T., Ohnishi, F., Minabe, T., Momosawa, A., & Kishi, K. (2015). An anatomic study of nipple position and areola size in asian men. Aesthetic Surgery Journal, 35(2), NP20-NP27. https://doi.org/10.1093/asj/sju023