Gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine neoplasm (NEN) that consists of neuroendocrine tumor and neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) is a lethal but under-investigated disease owing to its rarity. To fill the scarcity of clinically relevant models of GEP-NEN, we here established 25 lines of NEN organoids and performed their comprehensive molecular characterization. GEP-NEN organoids recapitulated pathohistological and functional phenotypes of the original tumors. Whole-genome sequencing revealed frequent genetic alterations in TP53 and RB1 in GEP-NECs, and characteristic chromosome-wide loss of heterozygosity in GEP-NENs. Transcriptome analysis identified molecular subtypes that are distinguished by the expression of distinct transcription factors. GEP-NEN organoids gained independence from the stem cell niche irrespective of genetic mutations. Compound knockout of TP53 and RB1, together with overexpression of key transcription factors, conferred on the normal colonic epithelium phenotypes that are compatible with GEP-NEN biology. Altogether, our study not only provides genetic understanding of GEP-NEN, but also connects its genetics and biological phenotypes. Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms are a rare but lethal cancer with a scarcity of clinically relevant models. Kawasaki et al. establish and characterize 25 organoid lines to identify molecular subtypes with genotype-phenotype mapping.
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