Stimulation of renal proximal tubule (PT) transport by angiotensin II (Ang II) is critical for regulation of BP. Notably, in rats, mice, and rabbits, the regulation of PT sodium transport by Ang II is biphasic: transport is stimulated by picomolar to nanomolar concentrations of Ang II but inhibited by nanomolar to micromolar concentrations of Ang II. However, little is known about the effects of Ang II on human PT transport. By functional analysis with isolated PTs obtained from nephrectomy surgery, we found that Ang II induces a dose-dependent profound stimulation of human PT transport by type 1 Ang II receptor (AT1)-dependent phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). In PTs of wild-type mice, the nitric oxide (NO) /cGMP/cGMP-dependent kinase II (cGKII) pathway mediated the inhibitory effect of Ang II. In PTs of cGKII-deficientmice, the inhibitory effect of Ang II was lost, but activation of theNO/cGMP pathway failed to phosphorylate ERK. Conversely, in human PTs, the NO/cGMP pathway mediated the stimulatory effect of Ang II by phosphorylating ERK independently of cGKII. These contrasting responses to the NO/cGMP pathway may largely explain the different modes of PT transport regulation by Ang II, and the unopposed marked stimulation of PT transport by high intrarenal concentrations of Ang II may be an important factor in the pathogenesis of human hypertension. Additionally, the previously unrecognized stimulatory effect of the NO/cGMP pathway on PT transport may represent a human-specific therapeutic target in hypertension.
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