Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by persistent synovial inflammation, resulting in estruction of joints. It has been demonstrated that the pro-inflammatory cytokines play a pivotal d role in the pathogenesis of RA, raising a hypothesis that the blockade of the cytokine cascade may provide a new therapeutic modalities in the disease. Biological agents inhibiting the function of inflammatory cytokines thus have been developed. Chimeric monoclonal antibody to TNFα(infliximab), full human antibody to TNFα (adalirnumab), TNF receptor 2-IgG fusion protein (etanercept), and IL-1 ra (anakinra) are new approved for RA in the states. In 2003, infliximab has just approved for RA in Japan, and we are now facing with the biological era. In this paper, the recent progress of anti-cytokine biological agents is reviewed.
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