A nationwide survey was conducted in Japan from 2014 to 2015 to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens isolated from surgical site infections (SSI). The resulting data were compared with that obtained in an earlier survey, conducted in 2010. Seven main organisms were collected, and 883 isolates were studied. A significant reduction in methicillin resistance was observed among Staphylococcus aureus isolates, dropping from 72.5% in 2010 to 53.8% in 2014–2015 (p < 0.001). MRSA isolates with a vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2 μg/mL accounted for 1.2% of all MRSA isolates, which was significantly lower than in 2010 (9.7%, p = 0.029). Of the Escherichia coli isolates, 23.0% produced an extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) in the 2014–2015 survey, which was a significant increase from 9.5% in 2010 (p = 0.011). The geometric mean MICs for ESBL-producing isolates were 0.07 μg/mL for meropenem, 9.51 μg/mL for tazobactam/piperacillin, 0.15 μg/mL for flomoxef, and 1.56 μg/mL for gentamycin. There was a significant increase in the isolation rate of non-fragilis Bacteroides among Bacteroides fragilis group species between the two study periods (35.2% vs. 53.1%, p = 0.007). More than 90% of isolates belonging to the B. fragilis group remained susceptible to tazobactam/piperacillin, meropenem, and metronidazole. In contrast, lower levels of susceptibility were observed for cefmetazole (49.6%), moxifloxacin (61.9%), and clindamycin (46.9%). Non-fragilis Bacteroides isolates had lower rates of antibiotic susceptibility compared with B. fragilis. Overall, the surveillance data clarified trends in antimicrobial susceptibility for organisms commonly associated with SSI.
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