Five cytotoxic macrolides, aplyronines D-H (4-8), were isolated from the Japanese sea hare Aplysia kurodai. They are new congeners of the antitumor compound aplyronine A (1), which was previously isolated from the same organism. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis (NMR and MS). The cytotoxicity of these new compounds was evaluated in comparison with that of aplyronines A-C (1-3), suggesting the importance of the 7-O-seryl ester group for mediating the potent cytotoxicity of aplyronines.
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