The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a molecular platform that induces caspase-1 activation and subsequent IL-1b maturation, and is implicated in inflammatory diseases; however, little is known about the negative regulation of NLRP3 inflammasome activation. In this article, we identified an E3 ligase, Ariadne homolog 2 (ARIH2), as a posttranslational negative regulator of NLRP3 inflammasome activity in macrophages. ARIH2 interacted with NLRP3 via its NACHT domain (aa 220-575) in the NLRP3 inflammasome complex. In particular, we found that while using mutants of ARIH2 and ubiquitin, the really interesting new gene 2 domain of ARIH2 was required for NLRP3 ubiquitination linked through K48 and K63. Deletion of endogenous ARIH2 using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing inhibited NLRP3 ubiquitination and promoted NLRP3 inflammasome activation, resulting in apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain oligomerization, pro-IL-1b processing, and IL-1b production. Conversely, ARIH2 overexpression promoted NLRP3 ubiquitination and inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Our findings reveal a novel mechanism of ubiquitination-dependent negative regulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by ARIH2 and highlight ARIH2 as a potential therapeutic target for inflammatory diseases.
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