While the association between 24-h urinary sodium and potassium excretion with blood pressure is well established, the relationships of these ions to spot urine measurements are unclear. Our purpose is to assess the association between blood pressure and the estimated 24-h sodium and potassium excretion from repeated single-spot urine samples. Spot urine and blood pressure were collected annually during a 5-year period from 4360 Japanese workers with ages ranging from 19 to 55 years. Estimates of 24-h sodium and potassium excretion were based on Tanaka’s formula. Overall, a single standard deviation increase in the estimated sodium excretion (36.5 mmol/day) was associated with a 1.3 mmHg higher systolic blood pressure and a 0.8 mmHg higher diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.001). A single standard deviation increase in estimated potassium excretion (8.9 mmol/day) was associated with a 1.1 mmHg lower systolic blood pressure and a 0.7 mmHg lower diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.001). As a combined measure of the excretion of both electrolytes, the estimated 24-h sodium-to-potassium ratio was positively associated with both blood pressures (P < 0.001). Associations of blood pressure with sodium and the sodium-to-potassium ratio increased with age and were stronger in men compared to women. Associations with potassium and the sodium-to-potassium ratio were stronger in individuals who were overweight. The findings provide evidence for an association between blood pressure and the estimated 24-h sodium and potassium excretion from repeated single-spot urine samples. As convenient measures of dietary intake for each electrolyte, repeated spot urine samples may be useful for assessing hypertension risk, especially in men, older individuals, and overweight individuals.
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