Background: Cerebrovascular disease is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is prevalent in stroke patients. This study evaluated the correlation between kidney dysfunction and asymptomatic findings on carotid ultrasonography (US) and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a Japanese population with health checkups. Methods and Results: In total, 1,716 subjects aged 40–80 years, who received health checkups from January 1 to December 31, 2015, were included. Common carotid artery intima–media thickness (CCA-IMT) and carotid plaques by US, and the presence of old non-lacunar infarctions, lacunar infarctions, white matter lesions (WMLs), cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), and atrophy by brain MRI were evaluated. After adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors, multiple regression analyses revealed that an eGFR ranging from 15 to 44 mL/min/1.73 m2 was independently associated with CCA plaques and hypoechoic or heterogeneous plaques. Proteinuria was associated with CCA or internal carotid artery plaques, the number of carotid plaques, and the presence of old non-lacunar infarctions and CMBs. Conclusions: Decreased eGFR and proteinuria were independent risk factors for asymptomatic abnormalities on carotid US and brain MRI, which are surrogate markers for cerebrovascular diseases. Evaluation of these abnormalities may be useful for prevention of symptomatic cerebrovascular events in CKD patients.
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