Background Drug-eluting stent-induced vasospastic angina (DES-VSA) has emerged as a novel complication in the modern era of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Although beta blockers (BBs) are generally recommended for coronary heart disease, they may promote incidence of DES-VSA. This study aimed to compare the effects of calcium channel blockers (CCBs) perceived to be protective against DES-VSA and BBs on subsequent coronary events after second-generation drug-eluting stent implantation. Methods In this multicentre prospective, randomised study, 52 patients with coronary artery disease who underwent PCI for a single-vessel lesion with everolimus-eluting stent placement were randomised into post-stenting BB (N=26) and CCB (N=26) groups and followed for 24 months to detect any major cardiovascular events (MACE). A positive result on acetylcholine provocation testing during diagnostic coronary angiography (CAG) at 9 months was the primary endpoint for equivalence. MACE included all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, unstable angina, cerebrovascular disease or coronary revascularisation for stable coronary artery disease after index PCI. Results At 9 months, 42 patients (80.8%) underwent diagnostic coronary angiography and acetylcholine provocation testing. Among them, seven patients in each group were diagnosed with definite vasospasm (intention-to-treat analysis 26.9% vs 26.9%, risk difference 0 (-0.241, 0.241)). Meanwhile, the secondary endpoint, 24-month MACE, was higher in the CCB group (19.2%) than in the BB group (3.8%) (p=0.01). In detail, coronary revascularisation for stable coronary artery disease was the predominant endpoint that contributed to the greater proportion of MACE in the CCB group (CCB (19.2%) vs BB (3.8%), p=0.03). Conclusions The incidence of acetylcholine-induced coronary artery spasms did not differ between patients receiving BBs or CCBs at 9 months after PCI. However, a higher incidence of 2-year MACE was observed in the CCB group, suggesting the importance of BB administration. Trial registration number This study was registered at the Japanese University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN) Clinical Trial Registry (The Prospective Randomized Trial for Optimizing Medical Therapy After Stenting: Calcium-Beta Trial; UMIN000008321, https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr-e/ctr-view.cgi?recptno=R000009536).
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine