The incidence rates of esophageal adenocarcinoma and its precursor lesion, Barrett's esophagus, have increased considerably in Western countries. Duodenogastroesophageal bile reflux is the major cause of this disease. Bile acids induce cytotoxicity in the esophageal epithelium through production of reactive oxygen species and activation of nuclear factor-kB and its downstream signaling pathways. Recent studies have revealed the characteristics of bile acid receptors and transporters in Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma.
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