Background & Aims: There is controversy over the optimal management strategy for patients with branch-duct type intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas (BD-IPMNs), precursors to pancreatic cancer. We aimed to identify factors associated with the presence of BD-IPMNs and changes in their diameter. Methods: Two separate analyses were conducted in a cohort of patients who underwent magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) in a single year (2006). MRCP findings and clinical outcomes of these patients were followed for a maximum of 6 years. We evaluated initial MRCP findings and demographics associated with the presence of BD-IPMNs at baseline and increase in BD-IPMN diameter over time. Results: During the follow-up period, 154 patients developed BD-IPMN and 322 patients did not. Older age, diabetes mellitus, gallbladder adenomyomatosis, and absence of gallstones were associated with the presence of BD-IPMNs at baseline. Increases in diameter of BD-IPMNs were associated with 3 baseline factors: BD-IPMN diameter greater than 17 mm, gallbladder adenomyomatosis, and a common bile duct diameter less than 5.5 mm. Patients with BD-IPMNs could be stratified into 4 groups with varying risk for the enlargement of BD-IPMNs over time: those with 3 risk factors (hazard ratio [HR], 11.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.4-37.8), 2 risk factors (HR, 4.7; 95% CI, 1.7-12.8), or 1 risk factor (HR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.2-8.2) compared with those without risk factors. Conclusions: For patients with BD-IPMNs, careful follow-up evaluation is particularly important for those with BD-IPMN >17 mm in size, common bile duct diameter <5.5 mm, or gallbladder adenomyomatosis.
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