The energy of real-time systems for embedded usage needs to be efficient without affecting the system’s ability to meet task deadlines. Dynamic body bias (BB) scaling is a promising approach to managing leakage energy and operational speed, especially for system-on-insulator devices. However, traditional energy models cannot deal with the overhead of adjusting the BB voltage; thus, the models are not accurate. This paper presents a more accurate model for calculating energy overhead using an analytical double exponential expression for dynamic BB scaling and an optimization method based on nonlinear programming with consideration of the real-chip parameter constraints. The use of the proposed model resulted in an energy reduction of about 32% at lower frequencies in comparison with the conventional model. Moreover, the energy overhead was reduced to approximately 14% of the total energy consumption. This methodology provides a framework and design guidelines for real-time systems and computer-aided design.
ASJC Scopus subject areas