R-spondin3 (Rspo3) is a secreted protein, which acts as an agonist of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling that plays an important role in embryonic development and homeostasis. In this study, we focused on C-mannosylation, a unique type of glycosylation, of human Rspo3. Rspo3 has two putative C-mannosylation sites at Trp153 and Trp156; however, it had been unclear whether these sites are C-mannosylated or not. We demonstrated that Rspo3 was C-mannosylated at both Trp153 and Trp156 by mass spectrometry. Using C-mannosylation-defective Rspo3 mutant-overexpressing cell lines, we found that C-mannosylation of Rspo3 promotes its secretion and activates Wnt/β-catenin signaling.
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