The use of mesenchymal stem cell sheets is a promising strategy for skin regeneration. The injection of dissociated human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFSCs) was recently found to accelerate cutaneous wound healing with reduced fibrotic scarring, similar to fetal wound healing. However, the use of hAFSCs in applications of cell sheet technology remains limited. The aim of this study was to determine the in vivo efficacy of in vitro-cultured hAFSC sheets in wound healing. The cell sheets were characterized by immunohistochemistry and RT-qPCR and grafted onto full-thickness wounds in BALB/c mice. The wound size was measured, and re-epithelialization, granulation tissue area, and collagen content of the regenerated wound were analyzed histologically. Although the hAFSC sheet contained abundant extracellular matrix molecules and expressed high levels of anti-fibrotic mediators, its grafting did not affect wound closure or the size of the granulation tissue area. In contrast, the organization of type I collagen bundles in the regenerated wound was markedly reduced, while the levels of type III collagen were increased after implantation of the hAFSC sheet. These results suggest that hAFSC sheets can exert anti-fibrotic properties without delaying wound closure.
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