Cementless total hip replacement (THR) is rapidly being accepted as the surgery for arthritic diseases of the hip joint. The bone-ingrowth rate in porous-type cementless implants was about 90% over 10 years after surgery, showing that biological fixation of cementless THR was well maintained on both the stem and cup sides. As for the stress shielding of the femur operated using a distal fixation-type stem, severe bone resorption was observed. The severe bone resorption group showed continuous progression for more than 10 years after surgery. Stem loosening directly caused by stress shielding has been considered less likely; however, close attention should be paid to bone resorption-associated disorders including femoral fracture. Cementless cups have several specific problems. It is difficult to decide whether a cup should be placed in the physiological position for the case of acetabular dysplasia by bone grafting or at a relatively higher position without bone grafting. The bone-ingrowth rate was lower in the group with en bloc bone grafting, and the reactive line was frequently noted in the bone-grafted region. Although no data indicated that en bloc bone grafting directly led to poor outcomes, such as loosening, cup placement at a higher site without bone grafting is now selected by most operators. The polyethylene liner in a cementless cup is thinned due to the metal cup thickness; however, it has been suggested that the apparent relation between the cup size and the wear rate was absent as long as a cementless cup is used. Comparative study indicated cementless THR was inferior with regard to the yearly polyethylene wear rate and incidence of osteolysis on both the stem and cup sides. Meta-analysis study on the survival rate between cement and cementless THR reported that cemented THR was slightly superior. It should be considered that specific problems for cementless THR, especially with regard to polyethylene wear, do occur.
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