Distance-based readout is one of the most user-friendly and simple colorimetric signaling methods widely applied for paper-based analytical devices (PADs). This work presents the integration of distance readout PADs into a centrifugal platform enabling affordable, rapid, and sample volume-independent colorimetric assays. Centrifugally assisted distance-based PADs (CD-PADs) eliminate the requirement to use micropipets for sample introduction and reduce the overall time for distance-based assays. All device fabrication steps were performed through computer-controlled print, cut, and laminate (PCL) techniques oriented toward mass production. The inexpensive centrifugal platform was built on a recycled DVD player combined with an open source microcomputer (Arduino). Assay protocols, including rotational velocity and rotation time, were optimized to obtain a maximum dynamic range and reproducible results for sample volume metering (coefficient of variation 3.62%). A colorimetric Ni2+ assay chosen to demonstrate measurements on CD-PADs allowed the detection of nickel ions (Ni2+) with naked-eye interpretation within 1.5 min and a limit of detection (LOD) of 44.1 ng of Ni2+, which to the best of our knowledge is the lowest value reported for a distance-based Ni2+ assay.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Analytical Chemistry