Introduction: Intramedullary metastasis of Ewing sarcoma is extremely rare. Here, we report an adult case of cervical intramedullary recurrent Ewing sarcoma after a 10-year disease-free survival after the initial surgery for a thoracic lesion. Case presentation: A 39-year-old man with a history of surgery and chemoradiotherapy for thoracic Ewing sarcoma ten years ago presented with neck pain and incomplete motor paralysis in the right upper extremity, which had suddenly appeared three months before. Cervical magnetic resonance imaging revealed a tear-drop-shaped intramedullary lesion at the C3 level accompanied by diffuse edematous change. Because of the rapid progression of his myelopathy, he underwent surgery for this intramedullary lesion. Intraoperatively, the tumor exhibited an orangish exophytic appearance. The unclearness of the tumor boundary compelled us to perform a partial resection. The histopathology showed the tumor comprised small round atypical cells with immunoreactivity for Nkx2.2 and CD99, diagnosing a metastatic Ewing sarcoma. Postoperatively, although his myelopathy improved transiently and adjuvant chemotherapy radiation was undergone, he died of cranial dissemination of the tumor two months and a half later. Discussion: To our knowledge, 31 cases of primary and only 4 cases of recurrent intramedullary spinal Ewing sarcoma have been reported to date; however, this is the first case of recurrent intramedullary Ewing sarcoma with a 10-year disease-free survival. Sadly, the prognosis of the current case was extremely poor. There is no clear treatment guideline for recurrent intramedullary Ewing sarcoma because of its rarity, and further collection of similar cases would be required.
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