Purpose: We evaluated the recent incidence of surgery and the changing surgery trends for ulcerative colitis (UC) in Japan due to the increasing use of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents. Methods: A questionnaire survey was performed to assess the number of surgeries, surgical indications, surgical timing, and immunosuppressive treatments before surgery between 2007 and 2017. Results: A total of 3801 surgical cases were reported over 11 years. The prevalence of UC surgery decreased over the period studied. The rate of prednisolone (PSL) use did not change. The prevalence of both calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) and anti-TNF agents increased during the period studied (p < 0.01). The prevalence of urgent/emergent surgery did not change. The most distinctive change in surgical indications was the increase in cancer/dysplasia (CAC), the prevalence of which increased from 20.2% in 2007 to 34.8%. Conclusion: The prevalence of UC surgery seems to be decreasing according to the increasing rate of anti-TNF agent and CNI administration. However, the indication of CAC significantly increased. Further research should evaluate whether or not long-term remission maintained with several agents can lead to increasing CAC.
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