Recent advancement in ultrasonographic evaluation has prompted early detection and diagnosis of congenital anomalies in the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) in the asymptomatic phase. Consequently, early surgical intervention has become possible in the asymptomatic phase for the purpose of controlling manifestations early, thereby avoiding renal functional deterioration. However, some lesions detected by ultrasonography have been shown to often resolve or disappear without intervention. Thus, it has become more important to identify and understand the natural history of CAKUT. For the precise evaluation of the results of surgical intervention, one must understand the maturational process of renal function during infancy. Without considering this process, we cannot differentiate the renal significance of the surgical management from the natural course of CAKUT. Recent advancement in the field of radioisotopic studies has also made a major contribution to the more precise assessment of renal function. Recent progress in the understanding of the pathophysiology and the natural history of CAKUT has helped rationalize its treatment and management. Improvement in the surgical techniques and tools, together with improvements in pediatric anesthesiology, have made an appreciably positive impact on the outcome. Herein, we present the emerging concepts in the urological management of CAKUT, specifically, multicystic dysplastic kidney, vesicoureteral reflux, congenital hydronephrosis, ectopic ureters and ureteroceles.
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