Although cell-penetrating peptides such as the HIV-derived TAT peptide have been used as tools for the intracellular delivery of therapeutic peptides and proteins, a problem persists: the endosomal escape efficiency is low. Previously, we found that the fusogenic peptide S19, derived from the human protein syncytin-1, enhance the endosomal escape efficiency of proteins that incorporated by endocytosis via TAT. In this study, we first performed Ala-scanning mutagenesis of S19, and found that all Ile, Val, Leu and Phe with high β-sheet forming propensities in S19 are important for the intracellular uptake of S19-TAT-fused proteins. In a secondary structure analysis of the mutated S19-TAT peptides in the presence of liposomes mimicking late endosomes (LEs), the CD spectra of V3A and I4A mutants with low uptake activity showed the appearance of an α-helix structure, whereas the mutant G5A retained both the uptake activity and the β-structure. In addition, we investigated the appropriate linking position and order of the S19 and TAT peptides to a cargo protein including an apoptosis-induced peptide and found that both the previous C-terminal S19-TAT tag and the N-terminal TAT-S19 tag promote the cytoplasmic delivery of the fusion protein. These results and previous results suggest that the interaction of TAT with the LE membrane causes a structural change in S19 from a random coil to a β-strand and that the subsequent parallel β-sheet formation between two S19 peptides may promote adjacent TAT dimerization, resulting in endosomal escape from the LE membrane.
|ジャーナル||Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications|
|出版ステータス||Published - 2022 1月 1|
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