Background: myopia prevalence is high among Japanese schoolchildren, but the underlying causes are unclear. Objective: To examine the distributions of ocular biometry and refraction and their associations with lifestyle variables among Japanese schoolchildren. Methods: This cross-sectional school-based study included 2140 children aged 3–14 years in Tokyo, Japan, and evaluated the distributions under non-cycloplegic conditions and the associated environmental factors. Results: The prevalence of spherical equivalent (SE) ≤−0.75 diopter among preschoolers (aged 3–6 years), elementary school students (aged 6–11 years), and junior high school students (aged 12–14 years) was 49.7%, 72.4%, and 87.7%, respectively. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that the time spent using digital devices was associated positively with lens thickness (β = 0.010; p < 0.050) but not SE, axial length, or vitreous chamber depth. The time spent reading was associated negatively with lens thickness (β = −0.012; p < 0.050), SE (β = −0.152; p < 0.010), axial length (β = 0.110; p < 0.001), and vitreous chamber depth (β = 0.110; p < 0.001). Conclusions: The data indicated that almost half of preschoolers may be myopic. The association with the lens thickness differed depending on the type of near work performed.
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