The authors describe the case of a patient with a glioblastoma multiforme who showed remarkably good response to chemotherapy. A genetic analysis using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) revealed that the tumor had a gain on the q arm of chromosome 1 (1q). Using CGH for a series of genetic analyses of more than 180 patients with gliomas, six were found to have a demonstrated 1q gain. Although the tumors in all six of these cases were histopathologically diagnosed as high-grade gliomas, compared with other malignant gliomas they demonstrated a good prognosis because of their favorable chemotherapeutic sensitivity. In immunohistochemical tests, most of the tumor cells in these cases were negative for O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase, which antagonizes the effect of DNA-alkylating chemotherapeutic agents. The authors believed that a gain of 1q could be produced through the genetic events that cause loss of 1p, because these chromosomal aberrations have an imbalance of DNA copy number in common (1p < 1q). A gain of 1q is an infrequent chromosomal aberration and its clinical importance should be investigated in a larger study; however, patients with malignant gliomas demonstrating a 1q gain possibly show longer survival and good response to chemotherapy similar to patients with tumors demonstrating 1p loss. The importance of using genetic analysis for gliomas is emphasized in this report because it may help in selecting cases responsive to chemotherapy and because appropriate treatment for these patients will lead to progress in the treatment of malignant gliomas.
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