Creatures on earth have the capacity to preserve homeostasis in response to changing environments. The circadian clock enables organisms to adapt to daily predictable rhythms in surrounding conditions. In mammals, circadian clocks constitute hierarchical network, where the central pacemaker in hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) serves as a time-keeping machinery and governs peripheral clocks in every other organ through descending neural and humoral factors. The central clock in SCN is reset by light, whilst peripheral clocks are entrained by feeding-fasting rhythms, emphasizing the point that temporal patterns of nutrient availability specifies peripheral clock functions. Indeed, emerging evidence revealed various types of diets or timing of food intake reprogram circadian rhythms in a tissue specific manner. This advancement in understanding of mechanisms underlying tissue specific responsiveness of circadian oscillators to nutrients at the genomic and epigenomic levels is largely owing to employment of state-of-the-art technologies. Specifically, high-throughput transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome have provided insights into how genes, proteins, and metabolites behave over circadian cycles in a given tissue under a certain dietary condition in an unbiased fashion. Additionally, combinations with specialized types of sequencing such as nascent-seq and ribosomal profiling allow us to dissect how circadian rhythms are generated or obliterated at each step of gene regulation. Importantly, chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing methods provide chromatin landscape in terms of regulatory mechanisms of circadian gene expression. In this review, we outline recent discoveries on temporal genomic and epigenomic regulation of circadian rhythms, discussing entrainment of the circadian rhythms by feeding as a fundamental new comprehension of metabolism and immune response, and as a potential therapeutic strategy of metabolic and inflammatory diseases.
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