We classify the sign-problem-free relativistic fermion actions on the basis of the Majorana representation. In the Majorana representation, the sign-problem-free condition is given by the semi-positivity of a Pfaffian. We show that the known sign-problem-free actions of the Dirac fermions, which are usually understood from the semi-positivity of a determinant, e.g., the action of quantum chromodynamics with nonzero chiral chemical potential or nonzero isospin chemical potential, can also be understood from the semi-positivity of a Pfaffian.We also derive new classes of the sign-problem-free relativistic fermion actions with Majorana-type source terms.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy(all)