This paper provides the review focusing on the clathrate hydrates at the temperatures below the freezing point of water. The three main topics of the review are the chemical thermodynamics, naturally-occurring hydrates and novel industrial applications utilizing hydrates. Fundamental phase equilibria in the hydrate forming systems at the temperatures below the freezing point of water are first reviewed. The effects of water-soluble compound on the hydrate phase equilibria are extensively discussed based on the experimental data reported in the literature and the newly obtained experimental data on the solid ice + sodium chloride aqueous solution + carbon dioxide hydrate + carbon dioxide gas four-phase equilibria that were measured in the present study. Natural occurrence of hydrates is discussed by comparing the thermodynamic conditions in the planets and satellites with the relevant hydrate phase equilibrium data. The naturally-occurring hydrates would exist in the following planets and satellites; Mars and Titan. The storage of natural gas in the form of the hydrate has been well investigated in the past two decades. CO2 hydrate can be used as the fire-fighting agent and the solid carbonated foods. The refrigeration and engine utilizing hydrates as the working media may be the challenging technologies having the prospects in terms of the efficiency, environment friendliness and the safety.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Chemical Engineering(all)
- Physics and Astronomy(all)
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry