Aims/Introduction: Risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Japanese women with recent gestational diabetes mellitus are unknown. The objective of the present study was to investigate the clinical and genetic characteristics associated with postpartum abnormal glucose tolerance in Japanese women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: A total of 213 Japanese women with recent gestational diabetes mellitus who underwent a postpartum 2-h oral glucose tolerance test were investigated. The association between antepartum clinical characteristics and postpartum abnormal glucose tolerance (diabetes or prediabetes based on the Japan Diabetes Society criteria) was examined. Frequencies of 45 known type 2 diabetes mellitus-associated genetic variants were also compared between women with and without postpartum abnormal glucose tolerance. Results: A total of 59 women showed postpartum abnormal glucose tolerance (prediabetes, n = 51; diabetes, n = 8). Plasma glucose levels at 1 or 2 h, the insulinogenic index and the insulin secretion-sensitivity index-2 of the antepartum oral glucose tolerance test were independent of postpartum abnormal glucose tolerance risk factors (P = 0.006, P = 0.00002, P = 0.01 and P = 0.006, respectively). Four genetic variants (rs266729 [ADIPOQ], rs6017317 [HNF4A], rs5215 [KCNJ11] and rs7177055 [HMG20A]) showed a nominally significant association with postpartum abnormal glucose tolerance (P < 0.05, respectively). Among these, three were related to insulin secretion. Postpartum abnormal glucose tolerance risk significantly increased with increasing risk-allele number (P = 0.0005; odds ratio 1.91). Conclusions: Clinical features and genetic variants related to impaired insulin secretion are risk factors of postpartum abnormal glucose tolerance in Japanese women with recent gestational diabetes mellitus.
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