Objective: To clarify the incidence, risk factors, and impact of malignancy in patients with PM/DM-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD). Methods: This study used data from 497 patients with PM/DM-associated ILD enrolled in a multicentre, retrospective and prospective cohort of incident cases. Cancer-associated myositis (CAM) was defined as malignancy diagnosed within 3 years before or after PM/DM diagnosis. Demographic and clinical information was recorded at the time of diagnosis, and data about the occurrence of mortality and malignancy was collected. Results: CAM was identified in 32 patients with PM/DM-associated ILD (6.4%). Patients with CAM were older (64 vs 55 years, P < 0.001), presented with arthritis less frequently (24% vs 49%, P = 0.01), and showed a lower level of serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 (687 vs 820 IU/l, P = 0.03) than those without CAM. The distribution of myositis-specific autoantibodies, including anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5, anti-aminoacyl tRNA synthetase, and anti-transcriptional intermediary factor 1-γantibodies, did not differ between the groups. Survival analysis demonstrated that CAM patients had a poorer survival than non-CAM patients (P = 0.006), primarily due to excess deaths by concomitant malignancy, while mortality due to ILD-related respiratory failure was similar between the groups (P = 0.51). Conclusion: Concomitant malignancy can occur in patients with PM/DM-associated ILD, and has significant impact on mortality. Older age, lack of arthritis, and a lower level of serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 at diagnosis are predictors of concomitant malignancy.
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