Purpose/Background Although discontinuing antipsychotics clearly increases the risk of relapse in schizophrenia, some patients remain clinically well without continuous antipsychotic treatment. However, data on the characteristics of such patients are still scarce. Methods/Procedures A systematic literature review was conducted to identify predictive factors for successful antipsychotic discontinuation in schizophrenia using PubMed (last search; June 2018) with the following search terms: (antipsychotic∗ or neuroleptic) AND (withdraw∗ or cessat∗ or terminat∗ or discontinu∗) AND (schizophreni∗ or psychosis). The search was filtered with humans and English. Factors associated with a lower risk of relapse, when replicated in 2 or more studies with a follow-up period of 3 months or longer, were considered successful. Findings/Results Systematic literature search identified 37 relevant articles. Mean relapse rate after antipsychotic discontinuation was 38.3% (95% confidence interval = 16.0%-60.6%) per year. Factors associated with a lower risk of relapse were being maintained on a lower antipsychotic dose before discontinuation, older age, shorter duration of untreated psychosis, older age at the onset of illness, a lower severity of positive symptoms at baseline, better social functioning, and a lower number of previous relapses. Implications/Conclusions Although this literature review suggests some predictors for successful antipsychotic withdrawal in patients with schizophrenia, the very limited evidence base and unequivocally high relapse rates after discontinuation must remain a matter of serious debate for risk/benefit considerations.
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