Background and objective: Supercentenarians, people who have reached 110 years of age, represent an ultimate model of human longevity. We have conducted research from both biomedical and psychosocial perspectives to clarify the factors that contribute to healthy longevity. The current study described the clinical course of the oldest lived man in the world. Methods: Kimura Jiroemon, who is the verified oldest man in recorded history, lived for more than 116 years. We conducted a longitudinal investigation including physical and psychological assessments, blood data, and electrocardiogram (ECG) from the age of 111 and obtained medical data such as computed tomography (CT) images during the course of hospitalizations in the last year of his life. Results: At the age of 111, Jiroemon was almost independent regarding activities of daily living. Additionally, his Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale score was 15/17, indicating high psychological well-being. His biological data included first-degree atrioventricular (AV) block on ECG; mild decreases of hemoglobin (11.6 g/dL), hematocrit (36.2%), and albumin levels (3.5 g/dL); and elevated serum cystatin C levels (1.32 mg/L), indicating potential dysfunction of the renal and electrical conduction systems. He then lived without fatal illness until the age of 115 years. At this age, he lost consciousness, and his ECG revealed complete AV block. At the first hospitalization for intensive examination, his doctor recommended implanting a cardiac pacemaker, but he and his family declined. On December 12, 2012, his condition rapidly worsened, and he was hospitalized twice for heart failure because of AV block. On May 11, 2013, he lost consciousness after breakfast, and he was hospitalized for the fourth time. He was diagnosed with pneumonia and heart failure based on his chest CT findings and elevated brain natriuretic peptide levels (160 pg/mL), and died on June 12, 2013 at the age of 116. Conclusions: Despite having no cardiovascular risk factors throughout his life, Jiroemon developed heart failure from potential heart and kidney dysfunction, suggesting that aging of the cardiorenal system was the ultimate pathology of the oldest man in the world. His clinical course represents a model of both suppression of morbidity and extreme longevity. Comprehensive health and longevity research studies from physical and psychological aspects are required.
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