Background: We evaluated the use of UroVysion fluorescence in situ hybridization tests to detect the intravesical recurrence of bladder cancer during follow-up after a transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT). Methods: In this prospective, blinded, comparative study, 486 patients treated by TURBT within the prior 2 years were registered at 12 centers. Urine cytology and UroVysion tests were performed once or twice at a central testing laboratory. For the patients with no suspicious findings of bladder cancer in the first analysis, the same examination set was repeated 3 months later as the second analysis. Totals of 468 and 399 patients were eligible for the first and second analyses, respectively. We determined the sensitivity and specificity of two consecutive UroVysion tests. Results: Bladder cancers were identified in 44 patients at the first analysis. The UroVysion test had 50.0% (95% CI 35.2–64.8%) sensitivity and 72.4% (68.3–76.8%). Urine cytology had 4.5% (0.0–10.7%) sensitivity and 99.8% (99.3–100.0%) specificity. The concordant rate of the first and second UroVysion test results was 72% (kappa coefficient 0.157). Interestingly, the patients with two consecutive positive UroVysion test results had the highest cancer detection rate (14.8%), which is greater than those of the patients with a positive result in either (7.2%) or neither (1.2%) of the two tests at the 3-month follow-up. Conclusions: The UroVysion test provided higher sensitivity than urine cytology to detect bladder cancer during post-TURBT follow-up. Two consecutive UroVysion tests might be a better indicator to predict intravesical recurrence.
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