Uterus transplantation (UTx) is a potential option for women with uterine factor infertility to have a child. The clinical features indicating irreversible rejection of the uterus are unknown. In our experimental series of allogeneic UTx in cynomolgus macaques, six female macaques were retrospectively examined, which were unresponsive to treatment with immunosuppressants (i.e. irreversible rejection). Clinical features including general condition, hematology, uterine size, indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence imaging by laparotomy, and histopathological findings of the removed uterus were evaluated. In all cases, general condition was good at the time of diagnosis of irreversible rejection and thereafter. Laboratory evaluation showed temporary increases in white blood cells, lactate dehydrogenase and C-reactive protein, then these levels tended to decrease gradually. In transabdominal ultrasonography, the uterus showed time-dependent shrinkage after transient swelling at the time of diagnosis of irreversible rejection. In laparotomy, a whitish transplanted uterus was observed and enhancement of the transplanted uterus was absent in ICG fluorescence imaging. Histopathological findings in each removed uterus showed hyalinized fibrosis, endometrial deficit, lymphocytic infiltration and vasculitis. These findings suggest that uterine transplantation rejection is not fatal, in contrast to rejection of life-supporting organs. Since the transplanted uterus with irreversible rejection atrophies naturally, hysterectomy may be unnecessary.
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